Illusive Design Pattern

Disrupted Attention

The recommended option is selected by default.


Passing costs on to the user for profit.


  • When purchasing Amazon Fresh groceries, a tip is added automatically based on the total cost with no feedback provided. The user is primed and then made to feel guilty for removing it.
  • Apps like DigitalOcean and LinkTree have a default pricing option selected.

Post-AI Altruheuristics

  • Priming
  • Conformity Bias
  • Self-serving Bias
  • Status Play: The user status is lowered as they are primed into feeling guilty for changing the amount.
CBT Distortions
  • Jumping to Conclusions - Where did this come from?
  • Catastrophizing - What if the driver knows I didn’t tip?
  • Personalization - Feel guilty for not giving tip.
  • Blaming - They make me feel bad.
  • Should - I should tip them as they need probably it.
Circ's Principles
  • Transparency: Reduce anxiety by removing uncertainty and explaining algorithm updates.
  • Expectations: Reduce stress by providing control and reassurance of outcome.
Mental Health


Pre-AI Heuristics

Dark Patterns




Graphic Design
  • F Pattern: Illusive pattern is applied outside the scannable area.
Don Norman Principles
  • Feedback: An extra charge was added with no feedback provided.
  • Visibility: The text is small and overpowered by all the other content.
Jakob Nielson Principles
  • Visibility: Same as above.
  • Match Real World: Asking for a tip upfront is considered to be unethical and breaks real world interaction and cultural norms.