Illusive Design Pattern

Fish Hooking

The Clipper card includes an icon to delete whereas the Apple Card does not.


Drawing users in with cheap prices for engagement.


  • When searching for a product on Google, a match is found on Etsy along with the image and price. When the product page is loaded, the price is for the cheapest option available which isn’t what the user wanted.
  • Companies like Apple prevent the user from removing their own product such as the Apple Card in the iPhone.
  • Apps like Medium automatically create an account when a user signs in using the wrong social account.

Post-AI Altruheuristics

  • Anchoring bias
  • Framing bias
  • Loss aversion
  • Dopamine: The price looks right.
  • Flow: Prices do not match.
  • Trust: Price change is unexpected.
CBT Distortions
  • Personalization e.g. Did I do something wrong?
Circ's Principles
  • Calmness: Provide all information required upfront before the journey.
  • Transparency: Reduce anxiety by removing uncertainty and explaining algorithm updates.
Mental Health


Pre-AI Heuristics

Dark Patterns
  • Hidden Costs: After investing time and effort, the user discovers unexpected fees and charges when they reach the checkout.


Graphic Design


Don Norman Principles
  • Visibility: No information is provided on the different sizes. Price does not match photo.
Jakob Nielson Principles